Prevention of stress – (Coping and resilience)


Theoretical model of stress and coping (Folk 2000b(113))
Avoidance coping stress and depression (Holahan 2005 (144))
Self-Compassion, Stress, and Coping (Allen 2010((9))
Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress in Maltreated Children (Cichetti 2009 (54))
A model for coping affect and stress (Yankura 2006 (331))
Proactive coping (Aspinwall 1997(16))
Coping and immunology (Koh 2006 (171))
Coping-experiment in HIV-patients (Bill 2000(27))
Emotional fitness training for soldiers/Resilience (Algo 2011 (8))
Compassion-focused reappraisal after an interpersonal offense (Witvlieta 2010 (326))
Scale to measure self-compassion (Neff 2003 (217))


Mindsets and placebo-effects

Thinking away the pounds and believe yourself healthy” (Alia Crum 2007 (67))
The same (blindly) marked milkshakes created 2 different physiological effects (Ghrelin hormone-hunger hormone) depending on the label on them (Crum 2011 (66))


Mindset and health

Positive view of aging lower risk of heart attack ( Levy 2009(186))
Belief’s about ageing influence recovery from major illnesses and accidents. (Levy 2006 (184), Levy 2012 (185), Levy 2002 (182))
People get happier as they get older. (Carstensen 2011 (46), Reed 2012 (246))
Positive views of ageing increased participants’ physical activities. (Wolff 2014(327))
Those with a positive view of ageing were more proactive and committed to their recovery (Wurm 2013 (329))
How you think about ageing can even influence your will to live as you grow older. (Levy 2002(183)) 
The “stress mindset measure” to assess people’s views on stress (harmful or beneficial) (Crum 2013(68))
People who believe stress is enhancing are less depressed than those who believe stress is harmful. (Crum 2013(68)) 


Mindset change

Stress mindset interevention tested, UBS (Crum 2011 (65))
Changing mindsets: “If you feel you don’t belong, you aren’t alone”. (Walton 2011+2012 (315;316))
Mindset change tested, Placebo testing- (Kelley 2012 (163))
Comparative stress experiment: To embrace anxiety (as an alternative to stay calm or avoiding stress, gives the best performance ((40) Brooks 2014)
Viewing stress as harmful interferes with people’s ability to use stress as the resource that it actually is (Meyerhoff 2004 (207)) 
Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals (Strack 2015 (279))
A positive view of anxiety can also make you less likely to burn out in a demanding job. (Strack 2015(280))
Rethinking stress (mindset intervention) could transform a threat into a challenge response. (Jamieson 2012 (155))

Significance of social relations Go to top
Significance of post war social support in former child soldiers (24;25) Betancourt 2010+2014



Adaption and wellbeing, 5 important revisions to the treadmill model are needed (Diener 2006 (82))
International Gallup world poll, national stress-index, and well-being. (Diener 2010+2015 (83;84), Holmquist 2014 (146))
Stress and wellbeing in the post materialistic world (Ng 2009+2014 (221;222)
What are the best predictors of a meaningful life? Surpricingly stress ranked high. (Baumeister 2013 (20))
A less stressful life does not make people nearly as happy as they think it will. (Sahlgren 2013 (252)) 


How bigger-than-self goals transform stress

People with bigger than self goals show greater well-being and are less depressed, due to strong social support networks.(Crocker 2009 (64))
When people are invited to reflect on their bigger-than-self goals, they can switch mindset and transform their experience of stress. (Abelson 2014 (2))
Inspirational coaching and mentoring to the Positive Emotional Attractor (PEA) emphasizes compassion. (Jack 2013 (153))

Designing bigger-than-self goals into the workplace Go to top
Bigger-than-self goals can help their organisations rebound from adversity. (Hernandez 2013 (135))
Altruism can help trauma survivors to cope by spending time helping others (Frazier 2013 (114))
Helping others reduces feeling of hopelessness after a personal crisis: (Cristea 2014 (63), Brown 2008 (41), Steffena 2009 (275), Doran 2014 (90), Kleinman1989 (169), Sullivan 1997 (283))
Helping others seem to eliminate the impact of traumatic events on health and longevity. The Poulin-study (Poulin 2013 (241))
People who does not routinely help others have an increased the risk of dying by 30% after a crisis, compared to people who helped others (Poulin 2013 (240))
If you are not a natural “tend-and-befriender”, you will also benefit from helping others. (Poulin 2013(241))
RCT: The protective effect of volunteering care from the “tend-and-befriend” mindset. (Schreier 2013 (259))
Example on the above with PTSD soldiers to train service dogs for other veterans (Yount 2013 (333))
Example of inmate caregivers, at end-of-life for other inmates. From predators to protectors. (Loeb 2013 (191). Cloyes 2013 (56))
Mortality and purpose in life (Hill 2014 (137))


Compassion and self-compassion versus feeling alone and suffering

Analytical: self compassion scale /”Common humanity” – (Neff 2003 (217))
People who feel alone in their stress, are more likely to become depressed and to rely on avoidant coping strategies, including denial. (Allen 2010 (9), Neff 2003 (217))
People often underestimate the stress in other people’s lives and overestimate other people’s happiness. (Gilbert 2014 (118), Jazaieri 2013 (156), Jordan 2011 (160))
People with self-compassion are more likely to find meaning in adversity and less likely to experience burnout at work (Raab 2014 (243))
Spending time on facebook (and other social media) can increase loneliness and decrease satisfaction with life. (Fay 2012 (111), Lou 2012 (192)) (= facebook trial)
To feel less alone in your stress, two things help: increase your awareness of other peoples suffering. To be more open about yours. (Jazaieri 2013 (156), Jazaieri 2014 (158))


Making the invisible visible

Ironic Interpersonal Consequences of Concealing a Stigmatized Identity in Social Interactions.(Newheiser 2014 (220), Garcia 2008 (115))